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The Most Notable Events in Medieval History You Should Know About

Interested in medieval history? This guide highlights the most important events that occurred during this fascinating time period. Don't miss out!

The medieval period, also known as the Middle Ages, spanned from the 5th to the 15th century in Europe. This era was marked by significant events, including the fall of the Roman Empire, the rise of Christianity, and the emergence of feudalism. Learn more about the key events and developments of medieval times in this guide.

When did medieval period start ?

medieval period timeline 6th to 13th and what was the medieval period  history and philosophy. 

The Most Notable Events in Medieval History You Should Know About

European medieval period - Enlightenment historians refer to the period from the 6th to 13th century as the Dark Ages of Europe.

5th - 12th century : Early medieval philosophy. 12th-16th century : late medieval philosophy.

The medieval period is also known as dark ages and medieval period /middle ages

In 529 CE the Church ordered the closing of Plato's academy.

The notion of the Dark Ages began with Enlightenment thinker such as Francesco Petrach in the 1330's.

Modern revisionist scholarship emphasises upon which the modern school and university system was built.

University of Oxford began around 1096. University of Paris began around 1150.
Medieval philosophers they are not called himself philosophers because they don't like pagan philosophy. 

Who was the most influential philosopher of the early medieval period?  Plato was most influential philosopher and most of philosopher rejected Aristotle.  

Saint Augustine 354-428 CE is called Plato. Saint Aquinas 1225-74 CE is called Aristotle.
Augustine reinterpreted Plato's thought in Christian terms while Aquinas combined Aristotle's thought with Christianity.

The term feudalism comes from the Latin world "Feudum" or "Feodum" which "fee  (also called a "feud" or "fief".) hence, Feudalism was a rent-economy based on serfdom. 
Ideological foundation of Feudalism. The ideology and culture of European feudalism was a synthesis of Indo-European and semitic beliefs.

As the Church developed into an into an institution it transformed over time into an international centar of European feudalism. 

By the late medieval period the church owned about a third of European land. Today the Church still owns about 177 million acres of land. 

The Fall of the Western Roman Empire.

One of the most significant events in medieval history was the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD. This event marked the end of the ancient world and the beginning of the Middle Ages. The fall of the empire was caused by a combination of factors, including economic instability, military decline, and political corruption. The collapse of the Roman Empire led to a power vacuum in Europe, which was eventually filled by various Germanic tribes and the emergence of feudalism.

The Rise of Islam and the Arab Conquests.

Another notable event in medieval history was the rise of Islam and the Arab conquests. In the 7th century, the Islamic prophet Muhammad founded Islam in the Arabian Peninsula. Over the next few decades, Arab armies conquered vast territories, including the Byzantine Empire, Persia, and parts of India. The Arab conquests had a significant impact on the world, spreading Islam and Arabic culture across much of the Middle East and North Africa. They also helped to preserve and transmit the knowledge of the ancient world to Europe during the Middle Ages.

The Viking Raids and Invasions.

One of the most well-known events in medieval history is the Viking raids and invasions. From the late 8th to the mid-11th century, Vikings from Scandinavia raided and pillaged coastal towns and monasteries throughout Europe. They also established settlements in places like Iceland, Greenland, and Newfoundland. The Viking Age had a significant impact on European history, influencing trade, politics, and culture. Today, the legacy of the Vikings can still be seen in the languages, traditions, and folklore of many countries.

The Crusades.

The Crusades were a series of religious wars fought between Christians and Muslims in the Middle East during the 11th to 13th centuries. The goal of the Crusades was to reclaim the Holy Land, particularly Jerusalem, from Muslim control. The Crusades had a significant impact on medieval Europe, influencing politics, religion, and culture. They also led to the establishment of new trade routes and the spread of new ideas and technologies. However, the Crusades were also marked by violence, intolerance, and atrocities committed by both sides.

The Black Death and the Decline of Feudalism.

The Black Death, also known as the bubonic plague, was a devastating pandemic that swept through Europe in the 14th century. It is estimated that the disease killed between 75 and 200 million people, with some regions losing up to 60% of their population. The Black Death had a profound impact on medieval society, leading to the decline of feudalism and the rise of the middle class. With so many people dying, labor became scarce and wages increased, giving peasants more bargaining power. This shift in power dynamics paved the way for the Renaissance and the modern era.

Debate medieval

Religion in Europe during the middle ages

The Greeks believed the universe was eternal.

  •  Creatio ex nihilo (Creation out of nothing)
  •  Creatio ex materia (Creation out of pre- existent, eternal matter). 
  •  Creatio ex deo (Creation out of the being of god).

Faith Vs reason 

Three principle of Medieval philosophy

1. Ratio 2. Auctoritas 3. Concordia

Ratio : Logic, dialectic and analysis.

2. Auctoritas : Deference to authority.

3. Concordia : To concord reason with revelation.

Gnosticism is derived from the Greek word gnostikos meaning "learned " or "knowledge". Gnostics shunned the material world and embraced the spirited world. They also influenced mysticism.

Tertullian 160-225 CE : Pagan philosophy "is little more than the foolishness of this world."

Clement of Alexandria 150-215 CE "philosophy is a gift of God - Plato took his wisdom from Moses and the prophets."

Flavius Justinus 100-165 CE : Plato's theory of forms is a clear vision of God. The immaterial world was being beyond essence, which is God. The condemnation of Socrates was a rehearsal or anticipation of the condemnation of Christ and his followers. Socrates and those like him are persecuted, while Epicurus and those like him are held in honour. Christ is the Logos itself.

Tatian 120-180 CE : "The Greek philosophers had taken from the scripture whatever truth they possessed and that whatever they added there to was nothing but falsity and perversion."

Athenagoras 133-190 CE : Plato's belief in the demiurge  is similar to Christian belief. The cause of perishable things must be imperishable and spiritual (god).

Theophilus of Antioch 181 CE : As the soul of man itself invisible is perceived through the movements of the body, so God, himself invisible, is known through his providence and works. 

Minucius Felix : Plato speak in Christian terms when he talk in the Timaeus of the maker and father of the universe.

Tertullian 160-275 CE : Even Socrates' wisdom did not amount to much since no one really know God apart from Christ.  "Everything including God is corporeal bodily for who will deny God is a body, although God is a spirit "

Iranaeus 130-202 CE : Appealed to argument from design.

Clement of Alexandria 150-215 CE : philosophy was to the Greeks what the law was to the Hebrews. philosophy is an aid in understanding Christianity. We know in truth only what God is not.

Origen 184 - 253 CE : God created the world from eternity. God is Goodness and Goodness always tends to self diffusion. "There is an infinity of worlds God did not created evil. All things will return to their ultimate principle, God will be all in all.

St. Gregory of Nyssa 330-395 CE : God must have a logos, a word, a reason. The divine logos is eternal.

Inventions of the dark ages

dark ages inventions

There are parts of the world that weren't dark at all, but in a civilization that stretched from Spain to China the golden rays of discovery and invention shone over everything.

Al-Jazari, engineer and ingenious inventor. Al-Jazari made some ground-breaking advances in engineering. Al-Jazari is most significant discovery converted rotary motion into linear motion, using a crank and connecting rod. It's essential in pumps and engines. In fact, He had no idea how the Industrial Revolution could have happened hundreds of years later without such a device. Not that he ever get the credit he deserve. But his crowning glory was his amazing time-telling machine, his legendary Elephant clock.(Dozens of components collected from different culture around the world Arabian , Egyptian, India, Greek, Chinese. 

Ibn Al Haythan , a great scientist whose ideas led to the invention of the camera. He laid the foundation for the modern cameras by explaining how our eyes work. He found a was of projecting an images onto another surface through small hole in a dark room- later called, camera obscura. ( All the things that evolved from this discovery- camera all share the same principle. 

Ibn Firnas, who gazed up to the heavens passionate in his belief that man could fly. Indeed he dared to dream about flying one thousand years the Wright Brothers.

Abul Qassim Al- Zahrawi , many call him the father of surgery. In fact many of the surgical tools that he invented are still used in you modern hospitals for example cat gut is using for stitches. cat gut - from the gut of animals perfect for stitching up internal wounds surgeons are still using it tody.

Maeriam Al-Astrulabi, one of the many brilliant women of her time. she made sophisticated astrolabes. Astrolabes - They show the sky and the stars on a small flat plate you can hold in your hand. Think of them as ancient calculating or timekeeping devices. Today we have our watch, compass, satellite  navigation and helping people and explores. 

Medieval history of philosophy link -medieval philosophy concepts 

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